Burden of disease (BoD) assessments typically rely on national-level incidence rates for the health outcomes of interest. The impact of using a constant national-level incidence rate, versus a more granular spatially varying rate, remains unknown and understudied in the literature. There has been an increasing number of publications estimating the BoD of childhood asthma attributable to air pollution, as emerging evidence demonstrates that traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) leads to onset of the disease. In this study, we estimated the burden of incident childhood asthma cases which may be attributable to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a criteria pollutant and a good marker of TRAP, in the contiguous United States. We used both a national-level and newly generated state-specific asthma incidence rates and compared results from the two approaches.